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Since 1912
and year after year thereafter, in their homes and local areas, in provincial
and national gatherings, on trains and buses, in the factories and on the
farms, in cities, villages, shanty towns, schools and prisons, the African
people have discussed the shameful misdeeds of those who rule the country. Year
after year, they have raised their voices in condemnation of the grinding
poverty of the people, the low wages, the acute shortage of land, the inhuman
exploitation and the whole policy of white domination. But instead of more
freedom repression began to grow in volume and intensity and it seemed that all
their sacrifices would end up in smoke and dust. Today the entire country knows
that their labours were not in vain for a new spirit and new ideas have gripped
our people. Today the people speak the language of action: there is a mighty
awakening among the men and women of our country and the year 1952 stands out
as the year of this upsurge of national consciousness.

In June,
bearing in mind their responsibility as the representatives of the downtrodden
and oppressed people of South Africa, took the plunge and launched the Campaign
for the Defiance of the Unjust Laws. Starting off in Port Elizabeth in the
early hours of June 26 and with only thirty-three defiers in action and then in
Johannesburg in the afternoon of the same day with one hundred and six defiers,
it spread throughout the country like wild fire. Factory and office workers,
doctors, lawyers, teachers, students and the clergy; Africans, Coloureds,
Indians and Europeans, old and young, all rallied to the national call and
defied the pass laws and the curfew and the railway apartheid regulations. At
the end of the year, more than 8,000 people of all races had defied. The
Campaign called for immediate and heavy sacrifices. Workers lost their jobs,
chiefs and teachers were expelled from the service, doctors, lawyers and
businessmen gave up their practices and businesses and elected to go to jail.

Defiance was a step of great political significance. It released strong social
forces which affected thousands of our countrymen. It was an effective way of
getting the masses to function politically; a powerful method of voicing our
indignation against the reactionary policies of the Government. It was one of
the best ways of exerting pressure on the Government and extremely dangerous to
the stability and security of the State. It inspired and aroused our people
from a conquered and servile community of yesmen to a militant and
uncompromising band of comrades-in-arms. The entire country was transformed
into battle zones where the forces of liberation were locked up in immortal
conflict against those of reaction and evil. Our flag flew in every battlefield
and thousands of our countrymen rallied around it. We held the initiative and
the forces of freedom were advancing on all fronts. It was against this
background and at the height of this Campaign that we held our last annual
provincial Conference in Pretoria from the 10th to the 12th of October last
year. In a way, that Conference was a welcome reception for those who had
returned from the battlefields and a farewell to those who were still going to
action. The spirit of defiance and action dominated the entire conference .

Today we
meet under totally different conditions. By the end of July last year, the
Campaign had reached a stage where it had to be suppressed by the Government or
it would impose its own policies on the country.

government launched its reactionary offensive and struck at us. Between July
last year and August this year forty-seven leading members from both Congresses
in Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth and Kimberley were arrested, tried and
convicted for launching the Defiance Campaign and given suspended sentences
ranging from three months to two years on condition that they did not again
participate in the defiance of the unjust laws. In November last year, a
proclamation was passed which prohibited meetings of more than ten Africans and
made it an offence for any person to call upon an African to defy. Contravention
of this proclamation carried a penalty of three years or of a fine of three
hundred pounds.

In March this year the Government passed the so-called Public
Safety Act which empowered it to declare a state of emergency and to create
conditions which would permit of the most ruthless and pitiless methods of
suppressing our movement. Almost simultaneously, the Criminal Laws Amendment
Act was passed which provided heavy penalties for those convicted of Defiance
offences. This Act also made provision for the whipping of defiers including
women. It was under this Act that Mr. Arthur Matlala who was the local [leader]
of the Central Branch during the Defiance Campaign, was convicted and sentenced
to twelve months with hard labour plus eight strokes by the Magistrate of Villa

The Government also made extensive use of the Suppression of Communism
Act. You will remember that in May last year the Government ordered Moses
Kotane, Yusuf Dadoo, J. B. Marks, David Bopape and Johnson Ngwevela to resign
from the Congresses and many other organisations and were also prohibited from
attending political gatherings. In consequence of these bans, Moses Kotane, J.
B. Marks, and David Bopape did not attend our last provincial Conference. In
December last year, the Secretary General, Mr. W. M. Sisulu, and I were banned
from attending gatherings and confined to Johannesburg for six months. Early
this year, the President-General, Chief Luthuli, whilst in the midst of a
national tour which he was prosecuting with remarkable energy and devotion, was
prohibited for a period of twelve months from attending public gatherings and
from visiting Durban, Johannesburg, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and many other
centres. A few days before the President-General was banned, the President of the
SAIC, Dr. G. M. Naicker, had been served with a similar notice. Many other
active workers both from the African and Indian Congresses and from trade union
organisations were also banned.

Congresses realised that these measures created a new situation which did not
prevail when the Campaign was launched in June 1952. The tide of defiance was
bound to recede and we were forced to pause and to take stock of the new
situation. We had to analyse the dangers that faced us, formulate plans to
overcome them and evolve new plans of political struggle. A political movement
must keep in touch with reality and the prevailing conditions. Long speeches,
the shaking of fists, the banging of tables and strongly worded resolutions out
of touch with the objective conditions do not bring about mass action and can
do a great deal of harm to the organisation and the struggle we serve. The
masses had to be prepared and made ready for new forms of political struggle.
We had to recuperate our strength and muster our forces for another and more
powerful offensive against the enemy.

Tuesday 14 June 2011 13:19

everyone has the right to education; that education shall be directed to the full development of human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms

To have gone ahead blindly as if nothing
had happened would have been suicidal and stupid. The conditions under which we
meet today are, therefore, vastly different. The Defiance Campaign together with
its thrills and adventures has receded. The old methods of bringing about mass
action through public mass meetings, press statements and leaflets calling upon
the people to go to action have become extremely dangerous and difficult to use
effectively. The authorities will not easily permit a meeting called under the
auspices of the ANC, few newspapers will publish statements openly criticising
the policies of the Government and there is hardly a single printing press
which will agree to print leaflets calling upon workers to embark on industrial
action for fear of prosecution under the Suppression of Communism Act and
similar measures. These developments require the evolution of new forms of
political struggle which will make it reasonable for us to strive for action on
a higher level than the Defiance Campaign.

The Government, alarmed at the
indomitable upsurge of national consciousness, is doing everything in its power
to crush our movement by removing the genuine representatives of the people
from the organisations. According to a statement made by Swart in Parliament on
the 1 8th September, 1953, there are thirty-three trade union officials and
eighty-nine other people who have been served with notices in terms of the
Suppression of Communism Act. This does not include that formidable array of
freedom fighters who have been named and blacklisted under the Suppression of
Communism Act and those who have been banned under the Riotous Assemblies Act.

the living conditions of the people, already extremely difficult, are steadily
worsening and becoming unbearable. The purchasing power of the masses is
progressively declining and the cost of living is rocketing. Bread is now
dearer than it was two months ago. The cost of milk, meat and vegetables is beyond
the pockets of the average family and many of our people cannot afford them.
The people are too poor to have enough food to feed their families and
children. They cannot afford sufficient clothing, housing and medical care.
They are denied the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness,
disability, old age and where these exist, they are of an extremely inferior
and useless nature. Because of lack of proper medical amenities our people are
ravaged by such dreaded diseases as tuberculosis, venereal disease, leprosy,
pellagra, and infantile mortality is very high.

The recent state budget made
provision for the increase of the cost-of-living allowances for Europeans and
not a word was said about the poorest and most hard-hit section of the population
– the African people. The insane policies of the Government which have brought
about an explosive situation in the country have definitely scared away foreign
capital from South Africa and the financial crisis through which the country is
now passing is forcing many industrial and business concerns to close down, to
retrench their staffs and unemployment is growing every day. The farm labourers
are in a particularly dire plight. You will perhaps recall the investigations
and exposures of the semi-slave conditions on the Bethal farms made in 1948 by
the Reverend Michael Scott and a Guardian Correspondent; by the Drum
last year and the Advance in April this year.

You will recall how human
beings, wearing only sacks with holes for their heads and arms, never given
enough food to eat, slept on cement floors on cold nights with only their sacks
to cover their shivering bodies. You will remember how they are woken up as
early as 4 a.m. and taken to work on the fields with the indunas sjambokking
those who tried to straighten their backs, who felt weak and dropped down
because of hunger and sheer exhaustion. You will also recall the story of human
beings toiling pathetically from the early hours of the morning till sunset,
fed only on mealie meal served on filthy sacks spread on the ground and eating
with their dirty hands. People falling ill and never once being given medical
attention. You will also recall the revolting story of a farmer who was
convicted for tying a labourer by his feet from a tree and had him flogged to
death, pouring boiling water into his mouth whenever he cried for water. These
things which have long vanished from many parts of the world still flourish in
SA today. None will deny that they constitute a serious challenge to Congress
and we are in duty bound to find an effective remedy for these obnoxious

Government has introduced in Parliament the Native Labour (Settlement of
Disputes) Bill and the Bantu Education Bill. Speaking on the Labour Bill, the
Minister of Labour, Ben Schoeman, openly stated that the aim of this wicked
measure is to bleed African trade unions to death. By forbidding strikes and
lockouts it deprives Africans of the one weapon the workers have to improve
their position. The aim of the measure is to destroy the present African trade
unions which are controlled by the workers themselves and which fight for the
improvement of their working conditions in return for a Central Native Labour
Board controlled by the Government and which will be used to frustrate the
legitimate aspirations of the African worker.

The Minister of Native Affairs,
Verwoerd, has also been brutally clear in explaining the objects of the Bantu
Education Bill. According to him the aim of this law is to teach our children
that Africans are inferior to Europeans. African education would be taken out
of the hands of people who taught equality between black and white. When this
Bill becomes law, it will not be the parents but the Department of Native
Affairs which will decide whether an African child should receive higher or
other education. It might well be that the children of those who criticise the
Government and who fight its policies will almost certainly be taught how to
drill rocks in the mines and how to plough potatoes on the farms of Bethal.
High education might well be the privilege of those children whose families
have a tradition of collaboration with the ruling circles.

attitude of the Congress on these bills is very clear and unequivocal. Congress
totally rejects both bills without reservation. The last provincial Conference
strongly condemned the then proposed Labour Bill as a measure designed to rob
the African workers of the universal right of free trade unionism and to
undermine and destroy the existing African trade unions. Conference further
called upon the African workers to boycott and defy the application of this
sinister scheme which was calculated to further the exploitation of the African
worker. To accept a measure of this nature even in a qualified manner would be
a betrayal of the toiling masses. At a time when every genuine Congressite
should fight unreservedly for the recognition of African trade unions and the
realisation of the principle that everyone has the right to form and to join
trade unions for the protection of his interests, we declare our firm belief in
the principles enunciated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that
everyone has the right to education; that education shall be directed to the
full development of human personality and to the strengthening of respect for
human rights and fundamental freedoms.

It shall promote understanding,
tolerance and friendship among the nations, racial or religious groups and
shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
That parents have the right to choose the kind of education that shall be given
to their children.

cumulative effect of all these measures is to prop up and perpetuate the
artificial and decaying policy of the supremacy of the white men. The attitude
of the government to us is that: “Let’s beat them down with guns and
batons and trample them under our feet. We must be ready to drown the whole
country in blood if only there is the slightest chance of preserving white

But there
is nothing inherently superior about the herrenvolk idea of the supremacy of
the whites. In China, India, Indonesia and Korea, American, British, Dutch and
French Imperialism, based on the concept of the supremacy of Europeans over
Asians, has been completely and perfectly exploded. In Malaya and Indo-China
British and French imperialisms are being shaken to their foundations by
powerful and revolutionary national liberation movements. In Africa, there are
approximately 190,000,000 Africans as against 4,000,000 Europeans. The entire
continent is seething with discontent and already there are powerful
revolutionary eruptions in the Gold Coast, Nigeria, Tunisia, Kenya, the
Rhodesias and South Africa. The oppressed people and the oppressors are at
loggerheads. The day of reckoning between the forces of freedom and
those of reaction is not very far off. I have not the slightest doubt that when
that day comes truth and justice will prevail.

intensification of repressions and the extensive use of the bans is designed to
immobilise every active worker and to check the national liberation movement.
But gone forever are the days when harsh and wicked laws provided the
oppressors with years of peace and quiet. The racial policies of the Government
have pricked the conscience of all men of good will and have aroused their
deepest indignation. The feelings of the oppressed people have never been more
bitter. If the ruling circles seek to maintain their position by such inhuman
methods then a clash between the forces of freedom and those of reaction is
certain. The grave plight of the people compels them to resist to the death the
stinking policies of the gangsters that rule our country.

But in
spite of all the difficulties outlined above, we have won important victories.
The general political level of the people has been considerably raised and they
are now more conscious of their strength. Action has become the language of the
day. The ties between the working people and the Congress have been greatly
strengthened. This is a development of the highest importance because in a
country such as ours a political organisation that does not receive the support
of the workers is in fact paralysed on the very ground on which it has chosen
to wage battle. Leaders of trade union organisations are at the same time
important officials of the provincial and local branches of the ANC In the past
we talked of the African, Indian and Coloured struggles. Though certain
individuals raised the question of a united front of all the oppressed groups,
the various non-European organisations stood miles apart from one another and
the efforts of those for co-ordination and unity were like a voice crying in
the wilderness and it seemed that the day would never dawn when the oppressed
people would stand and fight together shoulder to shoulder against a common
enemy. Today we talk of the struggle of the oppressed people which, though it
is waged through their respective autonomous organisations, is gravitating
towards one central command.

immediate task is to consolidate these victories, to preserve our organisations
and to muster our forces for the resumption of the offensive. To achieve this
important task the National Executive of the ANC in consultation with the
National Action Committee of the ANC and the SAIC formulated a plan of action
popularly known as the “M” Plan and the highest importance is [given]
to it by the National Executives. Instructions were given to all provinces to
implement the “M” Plan without delay.

underlying principle of this plan is the understanding that it is no longer
possible to wage our struggle mainly on the old methods of public meetings and
printed circulars. The aim is:

to consolidate the Congress
to enable the transmission of
important decisions taken on a national level to every member of the
organisation without calling public meetings, issuing press statements and
printing circulars;
to build up in the local
branches themselves local Congresses which will effectively represent the
strength and will of the people; to extend and strengthen the
ties between Congress and the people and to consolidate Congress

This plan
is being implemented in many branches not only in the Transvaal but also in the
other provinces and is producing excellent results. The Regional Conferences
held in Sophiatown, Germiston, Kliptown and Benoni on the 28th June, 23rd and
30th August and on the 6th September, 1953, which were attended by large
crowds, are a striking demonstration of the effectiveness of this plan, and the
National Executives must be complimented for it. I appeal to all members of the
Congress to redouble their efforts and play their part truly and well in its
implementation. The hard, dirty and strenuous task of recruiting members and
strengthening our organisation through a house to house campaign in every
locality must be done by you all. From now on the activity of Congressites must
not be confined to speeches and resolutions.

Their activities must find
expression in wide scale work among the masses, work which will enable them to
make the greatest possible contact with the working people. You must protect
and defend your trade unions. If you are not allowed to have your meetings
publicly, then you must hold them over your machines in the factories, on the
trains and buses as you travel home. You must have them in your villages and
shantytowns. You must make every home, every shack and every mud structure
where our people live, a branch of the trade union movement and never

You must
defend the right of African parents to decide the kind of education that shall
be given to their children. Teach the children that Africans are not one iota
inferior to Europeans. Establish your own community schools where the right
kind of education will be given to our children. If it becomes dangerous or
impossible to have these alternative schools, then again you must make every
home, every shack or rickety structure a centre of learning for our children.
Never surrender to the inhuman and barbaric theories of Verwoerd.

decision to defy the unjust laws enabled Congress to develop considerably wider
contacts between itself and the masses and the urge to join Congress grew day
by day. But due to the fact that the local branches did not exercise proper
control and supervision, the admission of new members was not carried out
satisfactorily. No careful examination was made of their past history and
political characteristics. As a result of this, there were many shady
characters ranging from political clowns, place-seekers, splitters, saboteurs,
agents-provocateurs to informers and even policemen, who infiltrated into the
ranks of Congress. One need only refer to the Johannesburg trial of Dr. Moroka
and nineteen others, where a member of Congress who actually worked at the
National Headquarters, turned out to be a detective-sergeant on special duty.
Remember the case of Leballo of Brakpan who wormed himself into that Branch by
producing faked naming letters from the Liquidator, De Villiers Louw, who had
instructions to spy on us. There are many other similar instances that emerged
during the Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth and Kimberley trials. Whilst some of
these men were discovered there are many who have not been found out.

Congress there are still many shady characters, political clowns,
place-seekers, saboteurs, provocateurs, informers and policemen who masquerade
as progressives but who are in fact the bitterest enemies of our organisation.
Outside appearances are highly deceptive and we cannot classify these men by
looking at their faces or by listening to their sweet tongues or their vehement
speeches demanding immediate action. The friends of the people are
distinguishable by the ready and disciplined manner in which they rally behind
their organisation and their readiness to sacrifice when the preservation of
the organisation has become a matter of life and death. Similarly, enemies and
shady characters are detected by the extent to which they consistently attempt
to wreck the organisation by creating fratricidal strife, disseminating
confusion and undermining and even opposing important plans of action to
vitalise the organisation. In this respect it is interesting to note that
almost all the people who oppose the ”M” Plan are people who have
consistently refused to respond when sacrifices were called for, and whose
political background leaves much to be desired. These shady characters by means
of flattery, bribes and corruption, win the support of the weak-willed and
politically backward individuals, detach them from Congress and use them in
their own interests.

The presence of such elements in Congress constitutes a
serious threat to the struggle, for the capacity for political action of an
organisation which is ravaged by such disruptive and splitting elements is
considerably undermined. Here in South Africa, as in many parts of the world, a
revolution is maturing: it is the profound desire, the determination and the
urge of the overwhelming majority of the country to destroy for ever the
shackles of oppression that condemn them to servitude and slavery. To overthrow
oppression has been sanctioned by humanity and is the highest aspiration of
every free man. If elements in our organisation seek to impede the realisation
of this lofty purpose then these people have placed themselves outside the
organisation and must be put out of action before they do more harm. To do
otherwise would be a crime and a serious neglect of duty. We must rid ourselves
of such elements and give our organisation the striking power of a real
militant mass organisation.

Marks, Bopape, Tloome and I have been banned from attending gatherings and we
cannot join and counsel with you on the serious problems that are facing our
country. We have been banned because we champion the freedom of the oppressed
people of our country and because we have consistently fought against the
policy of racial discrimination in favour of a policy which accords fundamental
human rights to all, irrespective of race, colour, sex or language. We are
exiled from our own people for we have uncompromisingly resisted the efforts of
imperialist America and her satellites to drag the world into the rule of
violence and brutal force, into the rule of the napalm, hydrogen and the cobalt
bombs where millions of people will be wiped out to satisfy the criminal and
greedy appetites of the imperial powers. We have been gagged because we have
emphatically and openly condemned the criminal attacks by the imperialists
against the people of Malaya, Vietnam, Indonesia, Tunisia and Tanganyika and
called upon our people to identify themselves unreservedly with the cause of
world peace and to fight against the war policies of America and her

We are being shadowed, hounded and trailed because we fearlessly
voiced our horror and indignation at the slaughter of the people of Korea and
Kenya. The massacre of the Kenya people by Britain has aroused world-wide
indignation and protest. Children are being burnt alive, women are raped,
tortured, whipped and boiling water poured on their breasts to force
confessions from them that Jomo Kenyatta had administered the Mau Mau oath to
them. Men are being castrated and shot dead. In the Kikuyu country there are
some villages in which the population has been completely wiped out. We are
prisoners in our own country because we dared to raise our voices against these
horrible atrocities and because we expressed our solidarity with the cause of
the Kenya people.

You can
see that “there is no easy walk to freedom anywhere, and many of us will
have to pass through the valley of the shadow (of death) again and again before
we reach the mountain tops of our desires.

and difficulties have not deterred us in the past, they will not frighten us
now. But we must be prepared for them like men in business who do not waste
energy in vain talk and idle action. The way of preparation (for action) lies
in our rooting out all impurity and indiscipline from our organisation and
making it the bright and shining instrument that will cleave its way to
(Africa’s) freedom.”

1 This was the Presidential address by Nelson Mandela to the ANC Transvaal
Conference. He was elected as ANC Transvaal President earlier in the year but
had been served with a banning order and the address was therefore read on his