Gold output in September declined to its lowest level in almost four years. It decreased by 19 per cent from a year earlier.

Manufacturers in the country are operating some of the world’s deepest and most rigorous mines, forcing them to decrease output and lay-off thousands of workers as they struggle to contain operating costs.

Sixty-nine labourers have died in South African mines since the beginning of 2018, with the country’s gold mines accounting for more than half of the fatalities.